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  • 食品廠加工中的微生物污染控制辦法

    發布時間:

    2022-11-16

    作者:

    微生物培養基好品牌


    食品廠加工中的微生物污染控制辦法

     
     
    因微生物產生、附著而給特定的環境帶來的不良影響。如果細菌得到了必要的養料、一定量的水份和合適的溫度,它們就能迅速繁殖,它們繁殖的速度快得驚人。通常一個細菌在僅僅2小時后可產生出281兆(百萬)個的細菌。
     
    在食品工廠實行“微生物管理”,不是探索立即消滅微生物的管理方法,而是先對肉眼看得到的食物進行管理。微生物用肉眼不能直接觀察到,先要調查被微生物污染的物品,從自己身旁考慮。
    一、微生物污染傳播的四大媒介
    微生物污染傳播污染的四大媒介為:空氣、水、表面、人。
    空氣
    空氣攜帶著微生物來污染食品。每立方米的空氣中至少含有60萬顆塵粒,同時還存在著大量的微生物,在這樣的空氣條件下進行生產,肯定會污染食品。
    因此,要杜絕帶有大量塵埃微粒和微生物的空氣污染食品的有效辦法是對空氣采取過濾和消毒措施。
     
    從理論上來講,微生物在純水中是不能生長的。但是,用于生產中,還用于設施、設備清洗中的水,總會含有一定量的可溶性有機物和鹽類。正是這些可溶性的物質可被微生物利用作為它們生長的養料源泉。
    當帶有大量塵埃粒子和微生物的水用于生產或清洗設施、設備時,就轉移到食品上面,污染了食品。
    因此,我們直接用于食品生產的水必須經過處理,以防止微生物通過水來污染產品。
    食品廠微生物控制|微生物表面圖片
    表面
    由于空氣中的濕度,所有車間物體表面(包括天花板、墻壁、地面、設備、容器、工具或桌子)都包上一層含水的薄膜。表面因塵埃微粒和微生物由空氣傳播的回降而受到污染。
    我們應該了解:一個看起來很干凈的表面,實際上已經被千百萬個微生物所污染,除非已經做了正確的消毒滅菌。
     
    可能大家都不會想到的,人包括我們自己,是一個永不休止的污染媒介。當我們進入食品加工車間,也許將幾百萬細菌隨我們一起帶入車間。
    二、如何實施微生物檢查
    過去,食品廠的微生物檢查是由質量管理員對產品的中心樣品進行做生物檢驗。
    但是,只對最終產品進行微生物檢查,不能達到微生物管理的目的,檢查項目還需擴大,生產用水、原料、工人及機械均要檢查。
     
    但是,作為車間的衛生管理,質量管理員只是參與監控,而真正的實施在于員工的行動參與。
    因此,為了推動微生物管理,有必要讓員工廣泛、深入地認識微生物,使自己的行動自覺地符合“微生物管理型行動”。
    1.大腸菌群檢查
    自檢的檢查工具。標準檢查法雖然規定了使用的培養基和菌數允許量,但是還需要有“自檢”的簡易方法及檢查工具,并且使用效果要好。被檢的微生物中最初步、最重要的是“大腸菌群”。
     
    “大腸菌群”的存在,簡單地說可能是糞便污染。這種細菌在食品中決不允許。市場上有使用簡單的檢查工具出售。還可借助滅菌棉體對機器、工具、環境、手指等進行檢查。進行自檢時,只要根據“有”、“無”作出“不行’和“行”的判斷。
     
    自己的手指、管路、工具均需檢查,對一天操作結束后的滅菌洗凈狀態也應有一個要求,由于檢查采用了與原料、中間產品、包裝的檢查相同的檢查工具,所以可以逃行比較,容易管理。這些簡易工具完全可檢測大腸菌群,若擴大對金黃色葡萄球菌或一般細菌等檢查則更理想。
    2.環境微生物檢查
    工廠微生物污染的另一個原因是“環境”。環境微生物的檢查,按正規方法需要設備和較大經費。
     
    但是,調查空氣中微生物,任何工廠都能檢查。
     
    空氣中的微生物的來源有從工廠外攝入空氣中的微生物及工廠內部產生的微生物。
     
    一般用平板計數瓊脂培養基,將培養皿打開一定時間后,進行培養,就可檢查空氣中浮游菌的數目。這種檢查與檢查大腸菌群一樣也可由操作工人自己擔任。
     
    通過自檢,不僅能知道檢查結果,更重要是尋找出產生的原因及采取措施改進。
     
    三、如何進行微生物衛生管理
    1、實施整理整頓   
     
    工廠環境不整潔,如工廠內管路、軟管、集裝箱堆放場地等布局不合理、工作場所不能充分洗凈滅菌,就很難確保達到衛生的要求。因此,工廠內首先進行整理整頓、合理布局,實施“微生物抑制”,保證工人順利開展微生物管理。
     
    2、對工人的教育  
    食品工廠最大污染源之一是人。在車間,無論機械化程度如何發展,任何地方都有人存在。但是使工人接受衛生安全知識較困難。最好辦法就是開展“自檢”,工人通過親身體會自然地吸收知識。工人“自檢”,既可改善污染原因又增加知識,自覺地養成微生物管理型行動。
     
    3、SSOP管理標準的制訂  
    每一工廠都有許多各式各樣的問題、若不逐步解決,微生物就不能抑制。一定先要查明原因,然后制定“微生物抑制”標準,要制定階段性完成目標,否則成了空話。隨著標準控制指標的提高,微生物管理行動進一步落實,微生物抑制也簡單了。
     
    4.殺菌劑的使用   
    在殺菌劑使用前,要認真研究用各種殺菌方法,包括加熱、紫外線、臭氧等,要考慮殺菌劑使用所產生的后果。要選擇合適的殺菌劑,根據不同殺菌對象研究殺菌劑的使用方法,要防止不必要的殺菌劑混入食品,同時也要考慮對廢水處理的不良作用。
    文章來源:食品580
    青島日水生物qdrishui.cn

     
    Measures for controlling microbial contamination in food factory processing
     
     
    Adverse effects on a particular environment due to the production and attachment of microorganisms. If bacteria get the necessary nutrients, the right amount of water and the right temperature, they can reproduce quickly, and they can reproduce at an alarming rate. A typical bacterium can produce 281 trillion (million) bacteria in just two hours.
     
    Implementing "microbiological management" in food factories is not to explore management methods for the immediate elimination of microorganisms, but to manage food that can be seen by the naked eye first. Microbes can not be directly observed with the naked eye. First, it is necessary to investigate the articles contaminated by microorganisms and consider from their own side.
    The four major media of microbial pollution transmission
    The four major media of microbial pollution are air, water, surface and human.
    air
    Air carries microbes to pollute food. There are at least 600,000 dust grains per cubic meter of air, and there are also a lot of microbes in the air.
    Therefore, the effective way to eliminate air - contaminated food with a lot of dust particles and microbes is to filter and sterilize the air.
     
    water
    In theory, microbes cannot grow in pure water. However, in the process of production, water used in facilities and equipment cleaning will always contain a certain amount of soluble organic matter and salt. It is these soluble substances that can be used by microbes as a source of sustenance for their growth.
    When water with a large amount of dust particles and microorganisms is used to produce or clean facilities and equipment, it is transferred to food and contaminated food.
    Therefore, the water we use directly for food production must be treated to prevent microorganisms from contaminating products through water.
     
    The surface of the
    Due to the humidity in the air, all surfaces in the workshop (including ceilings, walls, floors, equipment, containers, tools or tables) are covered with a layer of water-containing film. The surface is contaminated by the return of dust particles and microbes from the air.
    We should understand that a seemingly clean surface is actually contaminated by millions of microbes, unless properly sterilized.
     
    people
    People, including ourselves, are an endless medium of pollution. When we enter the food processing plant, we may bring millions of bacteria along with us.
    2. How to carry out microbiological inspection
    In the past, microbiological inspections in food plants were performed by quality managers on central samples of products.
    However, the microbiological inspection of the final product alone cannot achieve the purpose of microbiological management. The inspection project needs to be expanded, and the production water, raw materials, workers and machinery should be inspected.
     
    However, as the health management of the workshop, the quality manager only participates in the monitoring, and the real implementation is the staff's action participation.
    Therefore, in order to promote microbial management, it is necessary for employees to have a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of microorganisms, so as to make their actions consciously conform to the "microbial management action".
    1. Colonoscopy
    Self-inspection tools. Although the standard inspection method stipulates the allowable amount of culture medium and bacteria used, it still needs a simple method and inspection tool of "self-inspection", and the use effect is good. The first and most important of the tested microbes was the coliform colony.
     
    The existence of coliform colonies may simply be fecal contamination. This kind of bacteria is never allowed in food. There are simple inspection tools on the market for sale. The machine, tool, environment, finger and so on can also be checked with sterilized cotton. When conducting self-inspection, the judge of "no" and "no" should be made according to "yes" and "no".
     
    His fingers, pipe, tools, all needs to check, for a day after the operation state of sterilization wash also should have a request, the adoption of the check and inspection of raw materials, intermediate products, packaging the same inspection tool, so can escape line more, easier to manage. These simple tools can be used to detect coliform bacteria, especially staphylococcus aureus or general bacteria.
    2. Environmental microbiological examination
    Another reason for microbial contamination in factories is the "environment". The inspection of environmental microorganism requires equipment and large funds according to the normal method.
     
    However, any factory can check for microbes in the air.
     
    The sources of microbes in the air include microbes in the air taken in from outside the factory and microbes produced inside the factory.
     
    The number of phytoplankton in the air can be checked when the plate is opened for a certain time. This examination, like the examination of coliform colonies, can be performed by the operator himself.
     
    Through self-inspection, we can not only know the inspection result, but also find out the cause and take measures to improve it.
     
    Iii. How to conduct microbial health management
    1. Carry out sorting and rectification
     
    The factory environment is not clean and tidy, such as the piping, hose and container stacking site in the factory are not properly arranged, and the working place cannot be fully washed and sterilized, so it is difficult to ensure the hygienic requirements are met. Therefore, the factory should first carry out reorganization, reasonable layout and implement "microbial inhibition" to ensure the smooth development of microbial management.
     
    2. Education for workers
    One of the biggest sources of pollution in food factories is people. In the workshop, no matter how mechanized the degree of development, there are people everywhere. But it is harder for workers to gain access to health and safety knowledge. The best way is to carry out "self-inspection", in which workers absorb knowledge naturally through personal experience. "Self-inspection" of workers can not only improve the causes of pollution but also increase knowledge, and consciously develop microbiological management actions.
     
    3. Establishment of SSOP management standards
    Every factory has many different kinds of problems, and without a gradual solution, microbes cannot be suppressed. You have to find out why, and then you have to set standards for microbial inhibition, and you have to set goals for a period of time. With the improvement of the standard control index, the microbial management action was further implemented, and the microbial inhibition was also simple.
     
    4. Use of fungicides
    Before the use of fungicides, various sterilization methods should be carefully studied, including heating, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, etc., and the consequences of the use of fungicides should be considered. To select suitable bactericide, according to the usage of different sterilization object research fungicide, to prevent unnecessary fungicide with food, also want to consider the adverse effects of the wastewater treatment.
    Source: food 580
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